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SUBSTITUTING INGREDIENTS
We ALL screw up. We use the last of some ingredient and somehow forget to add it onto our shopping list for the next trip into town. Then we begin a favorite dish for dinner and discover that an ingredient is missing. WHAT TO DO? Below are “acceptable” substitutions for quite a few common cooking ingredients… While the taste is not EXACT for most, only the most experienced palate will be able to discern the subtle differences.
MAIN
INGREDIENT AMOUNT SUBSTITUTION
Allspice 1 tsp 1/2 tsp cinnamon, 1/4 tsp ginger, and 1/4 tsp cloves
Arrowroot Starch 1 tsp 1 tbsp flour, OR 1 tsp cornstarch
Baking Mix 1 cup 1 cup pancake mix OR 1 cup easy biscuit mixture
Baking Powder 1 tsp 1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 tsp cream of tartar OR 1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 cup buttermilk (decrease liquid in recipe by 1/2 cup)
Beer 1 cup 1 cup nonalcoholic beer OR 1 cup chicken broth
Brandy 1/4 cup 1 tsp imitation brandy extract plus enough water to make 1/4 cup
Bread Crumbs 1 cup 1 cup cracker crumbs OR 1 cup matzo meal OR 1 cup ground oats
Broth: Beef or Chicken 1 cup 1 bouillon cube plus 1 cup boiling water OR 1 tbsp soy sauce plus enough water to make 1 cup OR 1 cup vegetable broth
Brown Sugar 1 cup, packed 1 cup white sugar plus 1/4 cup molasses and decrease the liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup OR 1 cup white sugar OR 1 1/4 cups confectioners' sugar
Butter (salted) 1 cup 1 cup margarine OR 1 cup shortening plus 1/2 tsp salt OR 7/8 cup vegetable oil plus 1/2 tsp salt OR 7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 tsp salt
Butter (unsalted) 1 cup 1 cup shortening OR 7/8 cup vegetable oil OR 7/8 cup lard
Buttermilk 1 cup 1 cup yogurt OR 1 tbsp lemon juice or vinegar plus enough milk to make 1 cup
Cheddar Cheese 1 cup shredded 1 cup shredded colby cheddar OR 1 cup shredded monterey jack cheese
Chervil 1 tbsp chopped fresh 1 tbsp chopped fresh parsley
Chicken Base 1 tbsp 1 cup canned or homemade chicken broth or stock. Reduce liquid in recipe by 1 cup
Chinese Black Vinegar 1 cup Equal   parts of rice wine vinegar and balsamic vinegar
Chocolate (semisweet) 1 ounce 1 (1-ounce) square of unsweetened chocolate plus 4 tsps sugar OR 1 ounce semisweet chocolate chips plus 1 tsp shortening
Chocolate (unsweetened) 1 ounce 3 tbsps unsweetened cocoa plus 1 tbsp shortening or vegetable oil
Cocoa 1/4 cup 1 (1-ounce) square unsweetened chocolate
Condensed Cream of Mushroom Soup 1 (10.75-ounce) can 1 (10.75-ounce) can condensed cream of celery, cream of chicken, OR golden mushroom soup
Corn Syrup 1 cup 1 1/4 cup white sugar plus 1/3 cup water OR 1 cup honey OR 1 cup light treacle syrup
Cottage Cheese 1 cup 1 cup farmer's cheese OR 1 cup ricotta cheese
Cracker Crumbs 1 cup 1 cup bread crumbs OR 1 cup matzo meal OR 1 cup ground oats
Cream (half and half) 1 cup 7/8 cup milk plus 1 tbsp butter
Cream (heavy) 1 cup 1 cup evaporated milk OR 3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup butter
Cream (light) 1 cup 1 cup evaporated milk OR 3/4 cup milk plus 3 tbsps butter
Cream (whipped) 1 cup 1 cup frozen whipped topping, thawed
Cream Cheese 1 cup 1 cup pureed cottage cheese OR 1 cup plain yogurt, strained overnight in a cheesecloth
Cream of Tartar 1 tsp 2 tsps lemon juice or vinegar
Crème Fraiche 1 cup Combine 1 cup of heavy cream and 1 tbsp of plain yogurt. Let stand for 6 hours at room temperature
Egg 1 whole (3 tbsps or 1.7 oz) 2 1/2 tbsps of powdered egg substitute plus 2 1/2 tbsps water OR 1/4 cup liquid egg substitute OR 1/4 cup silken tofu pureed OR 3 tbsps mayonnaise OR half a banana mashed with 1/2 tsp baking powder OR 1 tbsp powdered flax seed soaked in 3 tbsps water
Evaporated Milk 1 cup 1 cup light cream
Farmer's Cheese 8 ounces 8 ounces dry cottage cheese OR 8 ounces creamed cottage cheese, drained
Fats for Baking 1 cup 1 cup applesauce OR 1 cup fruit puree
Flour--Bread 1 cup 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 tsp wheat gluten (available at health food stores & some supermarkets)
Flour--Cake 1 cup 1 cup all-purpose flour minus 2 tbsps
Flour--Self-Rising 1 cup 7/8 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 tsps baking powder and 1/2 tsp of salt
Garlic 1 clove 1/8 tsp garlic powder OR 1/2 tsp granulated garlic OR 1/2 tsp garlic salt--reduce salt in recipe
Gelatin 1 tbsp, granulated 2 tsps agar agar
Ginger--Dry 1 tsp 2 tsps chopped fresh ginger
Ginger--Fresh 1 tsp, minced 1/2 tsp ground dried ginger
Green Onion 1/2 cup, chopped 1/2 cup chopped onion, OR 1/2 cup chopped leek OR 1/2 cup chopped shallots
Hazelnuts 1 cup whole 1 cup macadamia nuts OR 1 cup almonds
Herbs--Fresh 1 tbsp chopped fresh 1 tsp (chopped or whole leaf) dried herbs
Herring 8 ounces 8 ounces of sardines
Honey 1 cup 1 1/4 cup white sugar plus 1/3 cup water OR 1 cup corn syrup OR 1 cup light treacle syrup
Hot Pepper Sauce 1 tsp 3/4 tsp cayenne pepper plus 1 tsp vinegar
Ketchup 1 cup 1 cup tomato sauce plus 1 tsp vinegar plus 1 tbsp sugar
Lard 1 cup 1 cup shortening OR 7/8 cup vegetable oil OR 1 cup butter
Lemon Grass 2 fresh stalks 1 tbsp lemon zest
Lemon Juice 1 tsp 1/2 tsp vinegar OR 1 tsp white wine OR 1 tsp lime juice
Lemon Zest 1 tsp 1/2 tsp lemon extract OR 2 tbsps lemon juice
Lime Juice 1 tsp 1 tsp vinegar OR 1 tsp white wine OR 1 tsp lemon juice
Lime Zest 1 tsp 1 tsp lemon zest
Macadamia Nuts 1 cup 1 cup almonds OR 1 cup hazelnuts
Mace 1 tsp 1 tsp nutmeg
Margarine 1 cup 1 cup shortening plus 1/2 tsp salt OR 1 cup butter OR 7/8 cup vegetable oil plus 1/2 tsp salt OR 7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 tsp salt
Mayonnaise 1 cup 1 cup sour cream OR 1 cup plain yogurt
Milk--Whole 1 cup 1 cup soy milk OR 1 cup rice milk OR 1 cup water or juice OR 1/4 cup dry milk powder plus 1 cup water OR 2/3 cup evaporated milk plus 1/3 cup water
Mint--Fresh 1/4 cup chopped 1 tbsp dried mint leaves
Molasses 1 cup Mix 3/4 cup brown sugar and 1 tsp cream of tartar
Mustard--Prepared 1 tbsp Mix together 1 tbsp dried mustard, 1 tsp water, 1 tsp vinegar and 1 tsp sugar
Onion 1 cup, chopped 1 cup chopped green onions OR 1 cup chopped shallots OR 1 cup chopped leeks OR 1/4 cup dried minced onion OR 1/4 cup onion powder
Orange Juice 1 tbsp 1 tbsp other citrus juice
Orange Zest 1 tbsp 1/2 tsp orange extract OR 1 tsp lemon juice
Parmesan Cheese 1/2 cup, grated 1/2 cup grated Asiago cheese OR 1/2 cup grated Romano cheese
Parsley 1 tbsp chopped fresh 1 tbsp chopped fresh chervil OR 1 tsp dried parsley
Pepperoni 1 ounce 1 ounce salami
Raisin 1 cup 1 cup dried currants OR 1 cup dried cranberries OR 1 cup chopped pitted prunes
Rice--White 1 cup, cooked 1 cup cooked barley OR 1 cup cooked bulgur OR 1 cup cooked brown or wild rice
Ricotta 1 cup 1 cup dry cottage cheese OR 1 cup silken tofu
Rum 1 tbsp 1/2 tsp rum extract, plus enough water to make 1 tbsp
Saffron 1/4 tsp 1/4 tsp turmeric
Salami 1 ounce 1 ounce pepperoni
Self-Rising Flour 1 cup 1 cup all purpose flour and 1 1/4 tsp baking powder
Semisweet Chocolate Chips 1 cup 1 cup chocolate candies OR 1 cup peanut butter or other flavored chips OR 1 cup chopped nuts OR 1 cup chopped dried fruit
Shallots, Chopped 1/2 cup 1/2 cup chopped onion, OR 1/2 cup chopped leek OR 1/2 cup chopped green onion
Shortening 1 cup 1 cup butter OR 1 cup margarine minus 1/2 tsp salt from recipe
Sour Cream 1 cup 1 cup plain yogurt OR 1 tbsp lemon juice or vinegar plus enough cream to make 1 cup OR 3/4 cup buttermilk mixed with 1/3 cup butter
Sour Milk 1 cup 1 tbsp vinegar or lemon juice mixed with enough milk to make 1 cup: Let stand 5 minutes to thicken
Soy Sauce 1/2 cup 4 tbsps Worcestershire sauce mixed with 1 tbsp water
Stock--Beef or Chicken 1 cup 1 cube beef or chicken bouillon dissolved in 1 cup water
Sweetened Condensed Milk 1 (14-ounce) can 3/4 cup white sugar mixed with 1/2 cup water and 1 1/8 cups dry powdered milk: Bring to a boil and cook, stirring frequently, until thickened, about 20 minutes
Thai Soy Sauce 1 cup 1/4 cup oyster sauce and 1 tbsp plus 2 tsp soy sauce and 2 tbsp packed dark brown sugar and 1 tbsp distilled white vinegar and 1 tsp molasses and 1 tsp fish sauce
Vegetable Oil (for baking) 1 cup 1 cup applesauce OR 1 cup fruit puree
Vegetable Oil (for frying) 1 cup 1 cup lard OR 1 cup vegetable shortening
Vinegar 1 tsp 1 tsp lemon or lime juice OR 2 tsps white wine
White Sugar 1 cup 1 cup brown sugar OR 1 1/4 cups confectioners' sugar OR 3/4 cup honey OR 3/4 cup corn syrup
Wine 1 cup 1 cup chicken or beef broth OR 1 cup fruit juice mixed with 2 tsps vinegar OR 1 cup water
Yeast--Active dry 1 (.25-ounce) package 1 cake compressed yeast OR 2 1/2 tsps active dry yeast OR 2 1/2 tsps rapid rise yeast
Yogurt 1 cup 1 cup sour cream OR 1 cup buttermilk OR 1 cup sour milk
The Recipes and information contained in these pages are for private use only. They are NOT to be used commercially or published.
SUBSTITUTING INGREDIENTS
We ALL screw up. We use the last of some ingredient and somehow forget to add it onto our shopping list for the next trip into town. Then we begin a favorite dish for dinner and discover that an ingredient is missing. WHAT TO DO? Below are “acceptable” substitutions for quite a few common cooking ingredients… While the taste is not EXACT for most, only the most experienced palate will be able to discern the subtle differences.
640
INGREDIENT AMOUNT SUBSTITUTION
Allspice 1 tsp 1/2 tsp cinnamon, 1/4 tsp ginger, and 1/4 tsp cloves
Arrowroot Starch 1 tsp 1 tbsp flour, OR 1 tsp cornstarch
Baking Mix 1 cup 1 cup pancake mix OR 1 cup easy biscuit mixture
Baking Powder 1 tsp 1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 tsp cream of tartar OR 1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 cup buttermilk (decrease liquid in recipe by 1/2 cup)
Beer 1 cup 1 cup nonalcoholic beer OR 1 cup chicken broth
Brandy 1/4 cup 1 tsp imitation brandy extract plus enough water to make 1/4 cup
Bread Crumbs 1 cup 1 cup cracker crumbs OR 1 cup matzo meal OR 1 cup ground oats
Broth: Beef or Chicken 1 cup 1 bouillon cube plus 1 cup boiling water OR 1 tbsp soy sauce plus enough water to make 1 cup OR 1 cup vegetable broth
Brown Sugar 1 cup, packed 1 cup white sugar plus 1/4 cup molasses and decrease the liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup OR 1 cup white sugar OR 1 1/4 cups confectioners' sugar
Butter (salted) 1 cup 1 cup margarine OR 1 cup shortening plus 1/2 tsp salt OR 7/8 cup vegetable oil plus 1/2 tsp salt OR 7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 tsp salt
Butter (unsalted) 1 cup 1 cup shortening OR 7/8 cup vegetable oil OR 7/8 cup lard
Buttermilk 1 cup 1 cup yogurt OR 1 tbsp lemon juice or vinegar plus enough milk to make 1 cup
Cheddar Cheese 1 cup shredded 1 cup shredded colby cheddar OR 1 cup shredded monterey jack cheese
Chervil 1 tbsp chopped fresh 1 tbsp chopped fresh parsley
Chicken Base 1 tbsp 1 cup canned or homemade chicken broth or stock. Reduce liquid in recipe by 1 cup
Chinese Black Vinegar 1 cup Equal   parts of rice wine vinegar and balsamic vinegar
Chocolate (semisweet) 1 ounce 1 (1-ounce) square of unsweetened chocolate plus 4 tsps sugar OR 1 ounce semisweet chocolate chips plus 1 tsp shortening
Chocolate (unsweetened) 1 ounce 3 tbsps unsweetened cocoa plus 1 tbsp shortening or vegetable oil
Cocoa 1/4 cup 1 (1-ounce) square unsweetened chocolate
Condensed Cream of Mushroom Soup 1 (10.75-ounce) can 1 (10.75-ounce) can condensed cream of celery, cream of chicken, OR golden mushroom soup
Corn Syrup 1 cup 1 1/4 cup white sugar plus 1/3 cup water OR 1 cup honey OR 1 cup light treacle syrup
Cottage Cheese 1 cup 1 cup farmer's cheese OR 1 cup ricotta cheese
Cracker Crumbs 1 cup 1 cup bread crumbs OR 1 cup matzo meal OR 1 cup ground oats
Cream (half and half) 1 cup 7/8 cup milk plus 1 tbsp butter
Cream (heavy) 1 cup 1 cup evaporated milk OR 3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup butter
Cream (light) 1 cup 1 cup evaporated milk OR 3/4 cup milk plus 3 tbsps butter
Cream (whipped) 1 cup 1 cup frozen whipped topping, thawed
Cream Cheese 1 cup 1 cup pureed cottage cheese OR 1 cup plain yogurt, strained overnight in a cheesecloth
Cream of Tartar 1 tsp 2 tsps lemon juice or vinegar
Crème Fraiche 1 cup Combine 1 cup of heavy cream and 1 tbsp of plain yogurt. Let stand for 6 hours at room temperature
Egg 1 whole (3 tbsps or 1.7 oz) 2 1/2 tbsps of powdered egg substitute plus 2 1/2 tbsps water OR 1/4 cup liquid egg substitute OR 1/4 cup silken tofu pureed OR 3 tbsps mayonnaise OR half a banana mashed with 1/2 tsp baking powder OR 1 tbsp powdered flax seed soaked in 3 tbsps water
Evaporated Milk 1 cup 1 cup light cream
Farmer's Cheese 8 ounces 8 ounces dry cottage cheese OR 8 ounces creamed cottage cheese, drained
Fats for Baking 1 cup 1 cup applesauce OR 1 cup fruit puree
Flour--Bread 1 cup 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 tsp wheat gluten (available at health food stores & some supermarkets)
Flour--Cake 1 cup 1 cup all-purpose flour minus 2 tbsps
Flour--Self-Rising 1 cup 7/8 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 tsps baking powder and 1/2 tsp of salt
Garlic 1 clove 1/8 tsp garlic powder OR 1/2 tsp granulated garlic OR 1/2 tsp garlic salt--reduce salt in recipe
Gelatin 1 tbsp, granulated 2 tsps agar agar
Ginger--Dry 1 tsp 2 tsps chopped fresh ginger
Ginger--Fresh 1 tsp, minced 1/2 tsp ground dried ginger
Green Onion 1/2 cup, chopped 1/2 cup chopped onion, OR 1/2 cup chopped leek OR 1/2 cup chopped shallots
Hazelnuts 1 cup whole 1 cup macadamia nuts OR 1 cup almonds
Herbs--Fresh 1 tbsp chopped fresh 1 tsp (chopped or whole leaf) dried herbs
Herring 8 ounces 8 ounces of sardines
Honey 1 cup 1 1/4 cup white sugar plus 1/3 cup water OR 1 cup corn syrup OR 1 cup light treacle syrup
Hot Pepper Sauce 1 tsp 3/4 tsp cayenne pepper plus 1 tsp vinegar
Ketchup 1 cup 1 cup tomato sauce plus 1 tsp vinegar plus 1 tbsp sugar
Lard 1 cup 1 cup shortening OR 7/8 cup vegetable oil OR 1 cup butter
Lemon Grass 2 fresh stalks 1 tbsp lemon zest
Lemon Juice 1 tsp 1/2 tsp vinegar OR 1 tsp white wine OR 1 tsp lime juice
Lemon Zest 1 tsp 1/2 tsp lemon extract OR 2 tbsps lemon juice
Lime Juice 1 tsp 1 tsp vinegar OR 1 tsp white wine OR 1 tsp lemon juice
Lime Zest 1 tsp 1 tsp lemon zest
Macadamia Nuts 1 cup 1 cup almonds OR 1 cup hazelnuts
Mace 1 tsp 1 tsp nutmeg
Margarine 1 cup 1 cup shortening plus 1/2 tsp salt OR 1 cup butter OR 7/8 cup vegetable oil plus 1/2 tsp salt OR 7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 tsp salt
Mayonnaise 1 cup 1 cup sour cream OR 1 cup plain yogurt
Milk--Whole 1 cup 1 cup soy milk OR 1 cup rice milk OR 1 cup water or juice OR 1/4 cup dry milk powder plus 1 cup water OR 2/3 cup evaporated milk plus 1/3 cup water
Mint--Fresh 1/4 cup chopped 1 tbsp dried mint leaves
Molasses 1 cup Mix 3/4 cup brown sugar and 1 tsp cream of tartar
Mustard--Prepared 1 tbsp Mix together 1 tbsp dried mustard, 1 tsp water, 1 tsp vinegar and 1 tsp sugar
Onion 1 cup, chopped 1 cup chopped green onions OR 1 cup chopped shallots OR 1 cup chopped leeks OR 1/4 cup dried minced onion OR 1/4 cup onion powder
Orange Juice 1 tbsp 1 tbsp other citrus juice
Orange Zest 1 tbsp 1/2 tsp orange extract OR 1 tsp lemon juice
Parmesan Cheese 1/2 cup, grated 1/2 cup grated Asiago cheese OR 1/2 cup grated Romano cheese
Parsley 1 tbsp chopped fresh 1 tbsp chopped fresh chervil OR 1 tsp dried parsley
Pepperoni 1 ounce 1 ounce salami
Raisin 1 cup 1 cup dried currants OR 1 cup dried cranberries OR 1 cup chopped pitted prunes
Rice--White 1 cup, cooked 1 cup cooked barley OR 1 cup cooked bulgur OR 1 cup cooked brown or wild rice
Ricotta 1 cup 1 cup dry cottage cheese OR 1 cup silken tofu
Rum 1 tbsp 1/2 tsp rum extract, plus enough water to make 1 tbsp
Saffron 1/4 tsp 1/4 tsp turmeric
Salami 1 ounce 1 ounce pepperoni
Self-Rising Flour 1 cup 1 cup all purpose flour and 1 1/4 tsp baking powder
Semisweet Chocolate Chips 1 cup 1 cup chocolate candies OR 1 cup peanut butter or other flavored chips OR 1 cup chopped nuts OR 1 cup chopped dried fruit
Shallots, Chopped 1/2 cup 1/2 cup chopped onion, OR 1/2 cup chopped leek OR 1/2 cup chopped green onion
Shortening 1 cup 1 cup butter OR 1 cup margarine minus 1/2 tsp salt from recipe
Sour Cream 1 cup 1 cup plain yogurt OR 1 tbsp lemon juice or vinegar plus enough cream to make 1 cup OR 3/4 cup buttermilk mixed with 1/3 cup butter
Sour Milk 1 cup 1 tbsp vinegar or lemon juice mixed with enough milk to make 1 cup: Let stand 5 minutes to thicken
Soy Sauce 1/2 cup 4 tbsps Worcestershire sauce mixed with 1 tbsp water
Stock--Beef or Chicken 1 cup 1 cube beef or chicken bouillon dissolved in 1 cup water
Sweetened Condensed Milk 1 (14-ounce) can 3/4 cup white sugar mixed with 1/2 cup water and 1 1/8 cups dry powdered milk: Bring to a boil and cook, stirring frequently, until thickened, about 20 minutes
Thai Soy Sauce 1 cup 1/4 cup oyster sauce and 1 tbsp plus 2 tsp soy sauce and 2 tbsp packed dark brown sugar and 1 tbsp distilled white vinegar and 1 tsp molasses and 1 tsp fish sauce
Vegetable Oil (for baking) 1 cup 1 cup applesauce OR 1 cup fruit puree
Vegetable Oil (for frying) 1 cup 1 cup lard OR 1 cup vegetable shortening
Vinegar 1 tsp 1 tsp lemon or lime juice OR 2 tsps white wine
White Sugar 1 cup 1 cup brown sugar OR 1 1/4 cups confectioners' sugar OR 3/4 cup honey OR 3/4 cup corn syrup
Wine 1 cup 1 cup chicken or beef broth OR 1 cup fruit juice mixed with 2 tsps vinegar OR 1 cup water
Yeast--Active dry 1 (.25-ounce) package 1 cake compressed yeast OR 2 1/2 tsps active dry yeast OR 2 1/2 tsps rapid rise yeast
Yogurt 1 cup 1 cup sour cream OR 1 cup buttermilk OR 1 cup sour milk
The Recipes and information contained in these pages are for private use only. They are NOT to be used commercially or published.
SUBSTITUTING INGREDIENTS
We ALL screw up. We use the last of some ingredient and somehow forget to add it onto our shopping list for the next trip into town. Then we begin a favorite dish for dinner and discover that an ingredient is missing. WHAT TO DO? Below are “acceptable” substitutions for quite a few common cooking ingredients… While the taste is not EXACT for most, only the most experienced palate will be able to discern the subtle differences.
MOBILE
INGREDIENT AMOUNT SUBSTITUTION
Allspice 1 tsp 1/2 tsp cinnamon, 1/4 tsp ginger, and 1/4 tsp cloves
Arrowroot Starch 1 tsp 1 tbsp flour, OR 1 tsp cornstarch
Baking Mix 1 cup 1 cup pancake mix OR 1 cup easy biscuit mixture
Baking Powder 1 tsp 1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 tsp cream of tartar OR 1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 cup buttermilk (decrease liquid in recipe by 1/2 cup)
Beer 1 cup 1 cup nonalcoholic beer OR 1 cup chicken broth
Brandy 1/4 cup 1 tsp imitation brandy extract plus enough water to make 1/4 cup
Bread Crumbs 1 cup 1 cup cracker crumbs OR 1 cup matzo meal OR 1 cup ground oats
Broth: Beef or Chicken 1 cup 1 bouillon cube plus 1 cup boiling water OR 1 tbsp soy sauce plus enough water to make 1 cup OR 1 cup vegetable broth
Brown Sugar 1 cup, packed 1 cup white sugar plus 1/4 cup molasses and decrease the liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup OR 1 cup white sugar OR 1 1/4 cups confectioners' sugar
Butter (salted) 1 cup 1 cup margarine OR 1 cup shortening plus 1/2 tsp salt OR 7/8 cup vegetable oil plus 1/2 tsp salt OR 7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 tsp salt
Butter (unsalted) 1 cup 1 cup shortening OR 7/8 cup vegetable oil OR 7/8 cup lard
Buttermilk 1 cup 1 cup yogurt OR 1 tbsp lemon juice or vinegar plus enough milk to make 1 cup
Cheddar Cheese 1 cup shredded 1 cup shredded colby cheddar OR 1 cup shredded monterey jack cheese
Chervil 1 tbsp chopped fresh 1 tbsp chopped fresh parsley
Chicken Base 1 tbsp 1 cup canned or homemade chicken broth or stock. Reduce liquid in recipe by 1 cup
Chinese Black Vinegar 1 cup Equal   parts of rice wine vinegar and balsamic vinegar
Chocolate (semisweet) 1 ounce 1 (1-ounce) square of unsweetened chocolate plus 4 tsps sugar OR 1 ounce semisweet chocolate chips plus 1 tsp shortening
Chocolate (unsweetened) 1 ounce 3 tbsps unsweetened cocoa plus 1 tbsp shortening or vegetable oil
Cocoa 1/4 cup 1 (1-ounce) square unsweetened chocolate
Condensed Cream of Mushroom Soup 1 (10.75-ounce) can 1 (10.75-ounce) can condensed cream of celery, cream of chicken, OR golden mushroom soup
Corn Syrup 1 cup 1 1/4 cup white sugar plus 1/3 cup water OR 1 cup honey OR 1 cup light treacle syrup
Cottage Cheese 1 cup 1 cup farmer's cheese OR 1 cup ricotta cheese
Cracker Crumbs 1 cup 1 cup bread crumbs OR 1 cup matzo meal OR 1 cup ground oats
Cream (half and half) 1 cup 7/8 cup milk plus 1 tbsp butter
Cream (heavy) 1 cup 1 cup evaporated milk OR 3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup butter
Cream (light) 1 cup 1 cup evaporated milk OR 3/4 cup milk plus 3 tbsps butter
Cream (whipped) 1 cup 1 cup frozen whipped topping, thawed
Cream Cheese 1 cup 1 cup pureed cottage cheese OR 1 cup plain yogurt, strained overnight in a cheesecloth
Cream of Tartar 1 tsp 2 tsps lemon juice or vinegar
Crème Fraiche 1 cup Combine 1 cup of heavy cream and 1 tbsp of plain yogurt. Let stand for 6 hours at room temperature
Egg 1 whole (3 tbsps or 1.7 oz) 2 1/2 tbsps of powdered egg substitute plus 2 1/2 tbsps water OR 1/4 cup liquid egg substitute OR 1/4 cup silken tofu pureed OR 3 tbsps mayonnaise OR half a banana mashed with 1/2 tsp baking powder OR 1 tbsp powdered flax seed soaked in 3 tbsps water
Evaporated Milk 1 cup 1 cup light cream
Farmer's Cheese 8 ounces 8 ounces dry cottage cheese OR 8 ounces creamed cottage cheese, drained
Fats for Baking 1 cup 1 cup applesauce OR 1 cup fruit puree
Flour--Bread 1 cup 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 tsp wheat gluten (available at health food stores & some supermarkets)
Flour--Cake 1 cup 1 cup all-purpose flour minus 2 tbsps
Flour--Self-Rising 1 cup 7/8 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 tsps baking powder and 1/2 tsp of salt
Garlic 1 clove 1/8 tsp garlic powder OR 1/2 tsp granulated garlic OR 1/2 tsp garlic salt--reduce salt in recipe
Gelatin 1 tbsp, granulated 2 tsps agar agar
Ginger--Dry 1 tsp 2 tsps chopped fresh ginger
Ginger--Fresh 1 tsp, minced 1/2 tsp ground dried ginger
Green Onion 1/2 cup, chopped 1/2 cup chopped onion, OR 1/2 cup chopped leek OR 1/2 cup chopped shallots
Hazelnuts 1 cup whole 1 cup macadamia nuts OR 1 cup almonds
Herbs--Fresh 1 tbsp chopped fresh 1 tsp (chopped or whole leaf) dried herbs
Herring 8 ounces 8 ounces of sardines
Honey 1 cup 1 1/4 cup white sugar plus 1/3 cup water OR 1 cup corn syrup OR 1 cup light treacle syrup
Hot Pepper Sauce 1 tsp 3/4 tsp cayenne pepper plus 1 tsp vinegar
Ketchup 1 cup 1 cup tomato sauce plus 1 tsp vinegar plus 1 tbsp sugar
Lard 1 cup 1 cup shortening OR 7/8 cup vegetable oil OR 1 cup butter
Lemon Grass 2 fresh stalks 1 tbsp lemon zest
Lemon Juice 1 tsp 1/2 tsp vinegar OR 1 tsp white wine OR 1 tsp lime juice
Lemon Zest 1 tsp 1/2 tsp lemon extract OR 2 tbsps lemon juice
Lime Juice 1 tsp 1 tsp vinegar OR 1 tsp white wine OR 1 tsp lemon juice
Lime Zest 1 tsp 1 tsp lemon zest
Macadamia Nuts 1 cup 1 cup almonds OR 1 cup hazelnuts
Mace 1 tsp 1 tsp nutmeg
Margarine 1 cup 1 cup shortening plus 1/2 tsp salt OR 1 cup butter OR 7/8 cup vegetable oil plus 1/2 tsp salt OR 7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 tsp salt
Mayonnaise 1 cup 1 cup sour cream OR 1 cup plain yogurt
Milk--Whole 1 cup 1 cup soy milk OR 1 cup rice milk OR 1 cup water or juice OR 1/4 cup dry milk powder plus 1 cup water OR 2/3 cup evaporated milk plus 1/3 cup water
Mint--Fresh 1/4 cup chopped 1 tbsp dried mint leaves
Molasses 1 cup Mix 3/4 cup brown sugar and 1 tsp cream of tartar
Mustard--Prepared 1 tbsp Mix together 1 tbsp dried mustard, 1 tsp water, 1 tsp vinegar and 1 tsp sugar
Onion 1 cup, chopped 1 cup chopped green onions OR 1 cup chopped shallots OR 1 cup chopped leeks OR 1/4 cup dried minced onion OR 1/4 cup onion powder
Orange Juice 1 tbsp 1 tbsp other citrus juice
Orange Zest 1 tbsp 1/2 tsp orange extract OR 1 tsp lemon juice
Parmesan Cheese 1/2 cup, grated 1/2 cup grated Asiago cheese OR 1/2 cup grated Romano cheese
Parsley 1 tbsp chopped fresh 1 tbsp chopped fresh chervil OR 1 tsp dried parsley
Pepperoni 1 ounce 1 ounce salami
Raisin 1 cup 1 cup dried currants OR 1 cup dried cranberries OR 1 cup chopped pitted prunes
Rice--White 1 cup, cooked 1 cup cooked barley OR 1 cup cooked bulgur OR 1 cup cooked brown or wild rice
Ricotta 1 cup 1 cup dry cottage cheese OR 1 cup silken tofu
Rum 1 tbsp 1/2 tsp rum extract, plus enough water to make 1 tbsp
Saffron 1/4 tsp 1/4 tsp turmeric
Salami 1 ounce 1 ounce pepperoni
Self-Rising Flour 1 cup 1 cup all purpose flour and 1 1/4 tsp baking powder
Semisweet Chocolate Chips 1 cup 1 cup chocolate candies OR 1 cup peanut butter or other flavored chips OR 1 cup chopped nuts OR 1 cup chopped dried fruit
Shallots, Chopped 1/2 cup 1/2 cup chopped onion, OR 1/2 cup chopped leek OR 1/2 cup chopped green onion
Shortening 1 cup 1 cup butter OR 1 cup margarine minus 1/2 tsp salt from recipe
Sour Cream 1 cup 1 cup plain yogurt OR 1 tbsp lemon juice or vinegar plus enough cream to make 1 cup OR 3/4 cup buttermilk mixed with 1/3 cup butter
Sour Milk 1 cup 1 tbsp vinegar or lemon juice mixed with enough milk to make 1 cup: Let stand 5 minutes to thicken
Soy Sauce 1/2 cup 4 tbsps Worcestershire sauce mixed with 1 tbsp water
Stock--Beef or Chicken 1 cup 1 cube beef or chicken bouillon dissolved in 1 cup water
Sweetened Condensed Milk 1 (14-ounce) can 3/4 cup white sugar mixed with 1/2 cup water and 1 1/8 cups dry powdered milk: Bring to a boil and cook, stirring frequently, until thickened, about 20 minutes
Thai Soy Sauce 1 cup 1/4 cup oyster sauce and 1 tbsp plus 2 tsp soy sauce and 2 tbsp packed dark brown sugar and 1 tbsp distilled white vinegar and 1 tsp molasses and 1 tsp fish sauce
Vegetable Oil (for baking) 1 cup 1 cup applesauce OR 1 cup fruit puree
Vegetable Oil (for frying) 1 cup 1 cup lard OR 1 cup vegetable shortening
Vinegar 1 tsp 1 tsp lemon or lime juice OR 2 tsps white wine
White Sugar 1 cup 1 cup brown sugar OR 1 1/4 cups confectioners' sugar OR 3/4 cup honey OR 3/4 cup corn syrup
Wine 1 cup 1 cup chicken or beef broth OR 1 cup fruit juice mixed with 2 tsps vinegar OR 1 cup water
Yeast--Active dry 1 (.25-ounce) package 1 cake compressed yeast OR 2 1/2 tsps active dry yeast OR 2 1/2 tsps rapid rise yeast
Yogurt 1 cup 1 cup sour cream OR 1 cup buttermilk OR 1 cup sour milk
The Recipes and information contained in these pages are for private use only. They are NOT to be used commercially or published.